New Years in Nepal: How Many New Years in One Year

On the night of 31st December, along with the world, Nepal welcomes New Year. However, Gregorian calendar is not officially recognized in Nepal. The widely accepted New Year will come only in the middle of April, when Nepal officially celebrates the beginning of New Year. This is according to the Vikram calendar, which is the official calendar in Nepal. Apart from these two New Year’s of Gregorian and Vikram calendar, Nepal officially recognizes seven other New Years. Nepal celebrates 9 New Years in a single year.

Gregorian Calendar

Nepal Government corresponds with other countries according to Gregorian calendar.January 1st is not a holiday in Nepal, unless it is a Saturday (Weekdays begins from Sunday). However, the private sector and urban youth use Gregorian calendar.

Maghi: The Tharu New Year

Nepali anthropologists have extensively written that the Tharu community is the direct descendent of Shakya, the clan of the Buddha. There are many archaeological evidences to support this fact. Interestingly, the Tharu community largely follows Hindu tradition. According to 2001 census (the new census 2011 is yet to be published), 5.6 percent of people living in Nepal are Tharus.

Tharus are considered aboriginal people living in the southern foothills, near India. Their language belongs to Indo-Aryan group.

Though there is no record of Tharu calendar, Maghi, which falls in January, is generally believed to be the Tharu’s New Year. The Nepal government officially recognizes Maghi as the New Year of Tharu community. Maghi, which falls on 15th of January, 2012, is a New Year holiday in Nepal.

Sonam Losar: The New Year of Tamang community

Tamangs are believed to be the oldest tribe of Nepal. According to the Tamang legend, Kathmandu called Yambu was their ancient capital. Lhochhar (also called Losar) is combined from Lho (new) and Chhar (year). Lhochhar or Losar marks the beginning of Tamang New Year. Tamangs will celebrate Sonam Losar, or the New Year, in January 24, 2012.

Tamang comprises of 5.6 percent of the total population. They are sparsely distributed, but majority of the Tamangs are mainly concentrated to the central hilly districts. Apart from Nepal, Tamangs also live in India, Myanmar, Bhutan, and Tibet.

Tamang language falls in Tibeto-Burman language group. Their script is called Sambhota. Tamangs celebrate Hindu as well as Buddhist festivals in their own version. The Tamang originally practiced Bon religion but today they are the largest population in Nepal to follow Buddhism in Nepal.

Galbo Losar: The New Year of Sherpa Community

Galbo Losar is the New Year of Sherpas in Nepal, which falls in February (24th February in 2012). The most famous of all Sherpas is Tenzing Norgay Sherpa, who climbed Mount Everest along with Edmund Hillary in 1953.

Sherpas are mountain-dwelling people of Nepal, Sikkim in India, and Tibet. The Sherpas of Nepal live in the Solukhumbu district, just beneath the Everest and her sister Himalayas. The Sherpa language belongs to the south branch of the Tibetan language family and does not have a distinct written script.

Anthropologists believe Sherpas originally belong to Kham region in Tibet, and they came to Nepal, about 400 years ago. In recent years Sherpas are also migrating to the West, especially to the United States. According to the 2001 Nepal Census, 154,622 Sherpas are living in Nepal. Majority of Sherpas are Buddhists, and very few people practice Hinduism, Christianity or Bon.

Vikram Calendar

Vikram is a Hindu calendar named after Vikram Aditya, also called Vikramaditya, who is believed to be the king of Ujjyan, India. Legend has it Vikramaditya, after hearing the prosperity of Nepal, came to Kathmandu Valley in disguise. After his identity was discovered, the ruler of Kathmandu offered him the reign and appointed King of Nepal. Thus began the advent of Vikram calendar.

There are many myths surrounding King Vikramaditya. One of the most popular myths is his devotion to Vajrayogini, the Buddhist Goddess. Every night King Vikramaditya applied spices all over his body and fried himself in a wok. At midnight Goddess Vajrayayogini arrived and feasted the human roast. The next day, the king found himself sleeping soundly and the wok full of gold.

According to Vikram calendar widely used in Nepal and India the year 2019 AD is 2076 Vikram Samvat.

Shrawan: The Beginning of New Fiscal Year

The new fiscal year is not actually a New Year, however, Hindu month Shrawan marks the beginning of new economic calendar in Nepal. Announcement of government policy and budget is highly anticipated happenings in Nepal. The new fiscal year begins somewhere in the middle of July.

Nepal Sambat (Calendar): The New Year of Newar People

The civilization of Kathmandu valley, called Nepal Mandala or simply Nepal, in the ancient time, is credited to Newar people. According to Nepal’s 2001 census, the Newar is Nepal’s sixth largest ethnic group, which represents 5.48 percent of the total population. Nepal Sambat is one among a few calendars native to Nepal, and the only calendar named after the country. According to Nepal Samvat, the year 2019 AD is 1139.

Newar people belong to mostly Tibeto-Burman group, while some are the descendent of Indo-Aryan ethnicities. They are thought to be aborigines of Kathmandu valley, though there is no record to show the record when they began living in Kathmandu.

Nepal Sambat was used throughout Medieval Nepal. In 2007, Nepal government recognized the Nepal Sambat as the national calendar in 2007. Nepal Sambat was started in 880 AD. According to the legend a Newar man named Sankhadhar Sakhwa cleared all debts of local people owing to the state, and to commemorate his altruism, a new calendar, based on lunar months, was started.

The New Year in Nepal Sambat begins the day after the Hindu festival of Divali, which was on October 27, in 2011. The founder of the Nepal Samvat, Sankhadhar Sakhwa is a national hero in Nepal. His calendar has been mentioned in the documents of Tibet, China, and northern India.

Hijri: The Islamic New Year

Samashuddin, the Sultan of Bengal, invaded Kathmandu valley in 1349 AD. He vandalized temples and looted treasures. In about 1490 the first batch of Muslims came in Kathmandu valley as traders and refugees. After the partition of India-Pakistan, and during the War of Independence in Bangladesh, more Muslims from India and Bangladesh came to live in Nepal. Though Nepal did not persecute Muslims, the state policy was hostile until 2006 when the country was announced secular.

The interim constitution of Nepal, 2007, recognizes Muslim community and Muslim calendar. Hijri calendar or Islamic calendar marks the migration of the Prophet Mohammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina.

To determine the exact date of beginning of Hijri, the Nepali Muslim leaders discuss and then chose a date. Nepal government later announces that day as official holiday and advent of New Year. In 2011, November 15 was the beginning of New Muslim Year.

Tamu Losar: The New Year of Gurung Community

The Gurungs are the indigenous people of central region of Nepal. They mostly live in North West Nepal, in Mustang, Dolpa, and around the Annapurna mountain range. Gurungs migrated to Nepal in the 6th century from Mongolia. Gurung community is also called Tamu and hence their New Year is called Tamu Losar. Tamu Losar falls in the last week of December or first week of January. The New Year of Gurung community in 2011 begins in 30th December.

Gurung language is a member of the Tibetan languages and they consist of 2.39 percent of the Nepali population. In early times Gurungs practiced Bon, also called shamanism, and later converted to Tibetan Buddhism. However, today there are many Gurungs in Nepal who also practice Hindu religion. Cultural practice in Gurung community is largely shamanistic. Their religious rituals include animal sacrifice, venerating dead ancestors and nature worship.

Gurungs are brave people. Most of their youths join Nepal Army and Nepal Police. They, along with Magar people, are also famous as Ghurkha soldiers. Ghurkha Regiment is a part of Indian and British Army.

Interesting Facts About New Celebrations in Nepal

Animal Sacrifice is important aspect of New Year celebrations in Nepal

New Year is overtly religious event in Nepal

Nepal maarks three different New Years that are commonly called Losar.

What is Losar?

Losar is New Year Festival in Tibet, which is also celebrated by three different indigenous communities in Nepal, Tamang, Sherpa and Gurung. The word Losar has origins in the Tibetan culture. Losar celebration began in Tibet long before Tibet accepted Buddhism. Ancient Tibet practiced Bon religion. In winter a Bon religious ceremony was held, deities were propitiated with incense, food and drinks. Later this festival was modified as Losar or the New Year’s festival.

Nepal in Figures

Name: Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal

Area: 147,181 sq km

Official language: Nepali

Recognized regional languages: More than 100 indigenous languages

Number of communities living in Nepal: More than 92

Kingdom declared: 21 December 1768 (Beginning of Shah dynasty, the last ruling dynasty in Nepal)

State declared: 15 January 2007 (Interim Constitution 2007, which was promulgated after the end of decade long Maoist insurgency)

Republic declared: 28 May 2008

Population: Approximately 29,331,000; 41st most populous country

Women in the parliament: 33% (out of 600)

Life expectancy: 62 years

Literacy rate: 48.6%

UN Human Development Index: 142, out of 177 countries.

Hindu Panchanga: What is it and Why is it Important in Hinduism

In this article, I will try to analyze what exactly is Panchanga, or Panchangam, as it is called in Sanskrit, why it is important in Hinduism, and what roles it plays in Vedic Astrology.

Panchanga in Vedic Astrology

Christmas is always on December 25, however, Dashain is not always on the fixed date. Last year, it was on Asoj 21 (October 8), and this year it is on Kartik 10 (October 26). Christmas is always on 25th December because the Christian calendar is based on solar months and date for Dashain varies because Hindu festivals uses lunar months. Christian calendar, also called Western calendar or Gregorian calendar, is basically a solar calendar. Not just by the Hindus, lunar calendar is also popular in other cultures as well, for example Islamic calendar called Hijri is also a lunar calendar. Even though, most of the Hindu festivals are based on lunar calendar, Hindu calendar also incorporates solar calendar and some Hindu festivals are based on solar calendar, for instance, Karkat Sankrinti, Makar Sankrinti etc.  Hindu calendar is called Panchanga, which incorporates solar calendar as well as lunar calendar.

Panchangam or Panchanga is a Hindu calendar and almanac based on Hindu Astrology or Vedic Astrology. Panchanga is a system of timekeeping that not only tracks, days, weeks, months, and years, but also celestial movements (movements of planets) and celestial incidents like solar and lunar eclipses, as well as forecasting weather. Hindu use Panchanga not only to determine date and time but also to find about their festivals, learn about auspicious time for important events like weddings, buying properties etc. Panchangas are widely used in India and Nepal to determine horoscope, auspicious time, as well as to make astrological calculations. In these countries, Panchangas are published by astrologers, societies, academies, and universities. Nepal Government even has a governing body for Panchanga, called Panchanga Nirnayak samiti, and every publisher of Panchanga has to get approval from the body in order to publish Panchanga.

Panchanga is so accurate and scientific that it can calculate the exact date and time of celestial phenomena like solar eclipse 100 years advance. Making of Panchnga requires mathematical calculations, geometry as well as astronomy. Calculations and tabulations are based on the formulas written by ancient sages of Vedic Astrology.

In the beginning, Panchanga was generated by using the theories and formulas mentioned in Grahalaghava and Surya Siddhanta. Calculations in Panchanga provide the positions of planets (popularly called grahas) and constellations (nakshatras) as they are observed in the sky. The principles of Panchanga are based on the 5000 years old Vedic tradition.

Features of Panchanga: The Hindu Almanac

The word Panchanga is made from two Sanskrit words Pancha (which means five) and Anga (which means limbs). Thus, Panchanga includes 5 major attributes viz.: Tithi, Nakshatra, Rasi, Yoga, and Karana. These attributes are based on the movement of the moon. Panchanga is so comprehensive that you can find everything from English date, Vikram date, lunar day, to planetary position, planetary movements, celestial phenomena like eclipse, zodiac, horoscope, etc.

Tithi: Tithi is the lunar day (elongation of the moon), or the angular relationship between Sun and Moon. One Tithi is 12 degree difference between the Moon and Sun.

Nakshatra: Nakshatra is the constellation where the moon is located for an observer on the earth. There are 27 Nakshatra, one Nakshatra is 13 degrees and 20 minutes, the 27 Nakshatra is 360 degrees.

Rashi: Rashis are the Zodaic symbols, there are 12 Rashis. Some Hindu astrologer includes “var” (solar days, of 7 days of the week) instead of Rashis as one of the attributes of Panchanga.

Yoga: Yoga, which is different from Yoga as in Patanjali Yoga, literally means the sum of two or more things. Thus, Yoga is the angular relationship between the Sun and the Moon. There are 27 Yogas in 360 degree and one Yoga is 13 degrees and 20 minutes.

Karana: Karana is half of a Tithi, where one Karana is 6 degree difference between the Moon and the Sun.Apart from these five attributes, Panchanga also includes Samvatsara (the cycle of 60 years), Varsha (year), and Masa (month). Varsha begins when the sun enters Aries and ends when the Sun is in Pisces. Thus, Vasha in Hindu Panchanga is based on the solar calendar of year and months.

Tithi is a very important aspect of Panchanga, which means that Panchanga also uses a lunar calendar (as explained above, the tithi is a lunar day). There are 30 tithis, where the bright half has 15 tithis and dark half has 15 tithis. An auspicious time or muhurtha is also very important aspect of Panchanga, muhurtha is based on tithi, karana and yoga. The basic purpose of Panchanga is to give exact details of time (auspicious time or muhurtha), day (tithi, karan), festivals, celestial phenomena, and weather.

Currently, numerous individuals and institutions publish Panchanga in Nepal. Some of the popular Panchangas in Nepal are Surya Panchanga, Toyanath Panchanga, Akashdarshan Panchanga etc.

The modern-day Panchanga in India is based on the Indian National Calendar published in 1957. Since the actual astronomical events did not tally with the principles in these scriptures, the Government of India formed a committee to make Panchanga calculations based on actual astronomical events. The currently used western calendar was revised in 1582 by Pope Gregory to tally with the actual seasons. In the last couple of years, astrologers in Nepal are also discussing about revising the Panchanga so that it incorporates actual celestial phenomena.

Ancient Vedic Scholars Who Shaped Hindu Astrology

English word Astrology comes from Greek language. Astrology in Greek is “Astra” and “Logos,” where Astra refers to the star and logos means logic or reason. Thus, Astrology, according to Western language is the study of celestial bodies (planets and stars).

Even though astrology is the logic of starts, science rejects the logic of astrology. Still, there is an overwhelming presence of astrology in various cultures. Some of the popular astrological belief systems are Western Astrology, Vedic Astrology (also called Hindu Astrology or Indian Astrology), Chinese Astrology etc.

Hindu Astrology has roots in Vedas, therefore, it is called Vedic Astrology. However, Vedas alone do not shape Vedic Astrology. Hindu astrology has burrowed substantially from Hellenist astrology, mostly from Greek sources. For example, Varaha Mihira, one of the important scholars of Vedic Astrology, was heavily influenced by Greek Astrology. Most of his astrological theories are based on Greeks. Even though current Hindu Astrology has been heavily influenced by western astrology, Hindu astrology itself is a very old tradition. The current Hindu Astrology was developed from the Vedanga Jyotish, or Vedanga branch of the Vedas. The Vedas used Vedanga Jyotish mainly as Astronomy, however, later was also used as astrology.

Hindu Astrology is believed to be about 5000 years old. Numerous scholars have contributed to Vedic Astrology. Sages like Vashistha, Bhrigu, Garga, Jaimini, Parashar etc. were the pioneers of Vedic astrology. However, it is impossible to date when these Vedic scholars lived and when they wrote these treaties. Furthermore, the same scholar is mentioned on various Vedic and post Vedic literature belonging to the different eras. For instance, Vashistha is mentioned as the first Vedic composer who is credited with numerous verses in Rig Veda and also as Lord Rama’s guru. There is a wide gap between these two periods. Perhaps, these were different Vashisthas. Likewise, Parashara is the name of Vashistha’s grandson and father of Vayasa, the compiler and editor of the Vedas; however, Parashara who wrote Brhad Parasara Hora Sastra is believed to have lived in 600 CE.

Even though there is a difficulty in placing ancient Hindu scholars in the exact time frame, we must agree that there were men by these names who created great works. One such name is Bhrigu, who is considered to be the son of Brahma, the creator himself.

Bhrigu Samhita by Maharshi Bhrigu is probably the first complete treatise on Vedic Astrology. Before Bhrigu wrote Bhrigu Samhita, treaties on Astrology written by various sages appeared on Rig Veda and Yajur Veda. However, Bhrigu wrote and compiled astrology theories in one complete book. Since Bhrigu wrote the first complete book on Vedic Predictive Astrology, he is symbolized as the father figure in Hindu Astrology. In the early days, books were not written on paper, they were memorized as scripts were not developed. Later, when the script was developed people copied books on tree barks. Therefore, a lot of Hindu books were lost completely or survived in portion. Even though Bhrigu compiled 500,000 horoscopes on Bhrigu Samhita only some fragments are available. It is said and about 45 million horoscope charts could be drawn from the 500,000 horoscopes written by Bhrigu. Had the complete work of Bhrigu Samhita survived, it could have been an encyclopedia of past, present, and future events.

Maharshi Parashara is another important figure in Vedic Astrology. He composed Brihad Parasara Hora Sastra, which is one of the most important treaties in Vedic Astrology, mainly Predictive Astrology. Brihad Parasara Hora Sastra is still studied and referred to in the Vedic Astrology readings.

Garga is considered another important figure in Vedic Astrology. Garga Samhita an astrological treatise is credited to Garga. However, the complete text of Garga Samhita has not been found, some fragments of Garga Samhita have been discovered in two chapters of the Yuga Purana.

Jaimini, who wrote Purva Mimamsa Sutras, is also a great Hindu scholar who wrote treatises on astrology. Purva Mimamsa Sutras that contains 3,000 verses was composed in around 4th century BCE.

Hindu Astrology is an ancient tradition with its roots in the Vedas. The astrology branch of the Vedas is called Vedanga Jyotish. Some of the earliest texts on Vedanga Jyotish are Surya Siddhanta and Bhrigu Samhita, which are believed to be composed 3500 BCE. Vedic Astrology is the study of the planets and the stars and how these celestial bodies influence human beings.

Vedic Astrology has two branches, predictive astrology, and mathematical astrology. The Predictive astrology states that the nine planets guide human being’s life. The placement of planets at the time of the birth, planetary cycles, etc. determine whether planets make people suffer or cherish. In fact, Vedic Astrology tells us that the way we are, the way we act, the way we think, the way we achieve or lose, everything is determined by the planets. The mathematical part of Hindu astrology is basically Hindu astronomy that not only examines celestial happenings like eclipses, but also forecasts weather etc. This is the most interesting thing about Hindu astrology which is missing in other types of astrology.

Contribution of Varahamihira in Vedic Astrology

Varahamihira also called Varaha Mihira is one of the influential figures in India whose works range from astrology, astronomy, mathematics, architecture, engineering etc. In fact, he was a polymath who wrote books like  Pancha-Siddhantika, Brihat-Samhita, Brihat Jataka etc. Varaha Mihira lived in the early 6th-century in Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Indian legends call Varaha Mihira as one of the 9 Jewels in the court of Hindu King Vikramaditya (who is believed to have founded Hindu calendar called Vikram Sambat). However, this claim does not seem valid as Varahamihira is believed to have born around 500 Common Era and dies late 6th century, whereas the Vikramaditya is believed to have lived 102 Before Common Era.

Varaha Mihira has propounded theories on various topics and subjects, however, in this article we are focusing on Varahamihira’s contribution to astronomy and astrology. Varaha Mihira’s texts on astronomy and astrology are still believed as authoritative texts in Hindu Astrology, or Vedic astrology to be precise.

Pancha-Siddhantika by Varahamihira is one of the notable books on Hindu Astronomy. It is dated 575 Common Era. The book is mainly a summary of ancient texts on astronomy by various Hindu sages, which are now lost. Thanks to Varahamihira that we can still learn about the contribution of Hindu sages on Astronomy theories. Pancha-Siddhantika, literally Commentary on Five Treatise, is Varaha Mihira’s interpretation and summery on Five Astronomical Canons.

In Pancha-Siddhantika, Varahamihira has summarized and interpreted astronomical and astrological treatises like Surya Siddhanta, Romaka Siddhanta, Paulisa Siddhanta, Vasishtha Siddhanta and Paitamaha Siddhanta. These five treaties are important texts on Vedanga Jyotisha, namely Vedic Astrology. Interestingly, these five treaties also include Greek, Egyptian and Roman astronomy and astrology.  The original texts of Surya Siddhanta, Romaka Siddhanta, Paulisa Siddhanta, Vasishtha Siddhanta and Paitamaha Siddhanta are no longer available, however, thanks to Varahamihira, we can learn about these astrology and astronomy canon in Pancha-Siddhantika.

While Pancha-Siddhantika is summary and intrepation of earlier texts, Brihat-Samhita is Varahamihira original texts. Brihat Samhita, Varahamihira’s most notable work is an encyclopaedia on architecture, astrology, astronomy, weather, gemology, perfumes, mathematics etc. The book contains treaties on temple architecture, planetary motions, celestial phenomena like eclipses, weather forecasting like seasons, cloud formation, rainfall; timekeeping, astrology agriculture, trigonometry, optics, and many other topics.

Even though Varahamihira has included the topic of astrology in Brihat Samhita, Brihat Jataka is his most authoritative book on Astrology. Varahamihira’s Brihat Jataka is a text on predictive astrology.

Varahamihira’s contribution to Vedic astrology is immense, however, he also seem to have been influenced by Western astrology, or Greek astrology to be precise.  In Brihat-Samhita, he went on saying that the Greeks should be appreciated because they have honored our science.

Pancha-Siddhantika is a seminal work on Greek, Egyptian, Roman and Indian astronomy. Romaka Siddhanta (literally, Doctrine of the Romans) and the Paulisa Siddhanta (treaties of Paul of Alexandria) are two major books among the Five Treaties as explained in the Pancha-Siddhantika by Varahamihira. These two books, which are basically based on Hellenic Astronomy and Astrology, had tremendous influence on Varahamihira

Varaha Mihira’s was not only expert in Vedic Astrology, but also on Western Astrology. The mathematical charts and tables created by Varaha Mihira’s are heavily influenced by Greek astronomy.

Education in the Post-Covid World

If we have to make a list of various sectors that have been ravaged by Covid-19, probably, Education sector tops the list. Around the globe, schools, colleges and universities have shut down in order to stop the virus from spreading. At the time when the classroom teaching and learning is at the standstill, all concerned people – students, teachers, operators of educational institutes and educationists – have jointly come forward to flout a new learning and teaching modality for the uninterrupted teaching and learning.

It is true that since sometime people were talking about the changes in the education system, however, it is only after the Covid-19 outbreak people are actually discussing the real changes that the educational institutions and teaching methods require.

Shift in the Need for Education

The world is always changing, and to cope with the changes the world goes through there is also a need to change our education system. In the ancient time, learning or education so to speak, was only for knowledge and wisdom, however, these days, education is a medium for livelihood. Until 50-60 years ago, our industries needed workers who could work day or night according to the given instructions or under the command of a single leader, however, these days, we not need people to follow instructions. There are robots and machines to follow our orders, what we need these days is a trouble-shooter who is able to handle problems faced by the machines and robots, programmers to program these robots and machines, supervisors to supervise machine’s work.

In the ancient time, human beings needed basic skills to make a living, however, these days, people require complex skills like operating machines, computers, gadgets, etc. as well as skills to stay calm even while working in a difficult environment, being able to work for longer hours without losing the focus, be able to multi-task, and also master multiple set of skills.

For example, if you are a teacher, instructional skills are not enough, you also need skills to create slideshows and graphics in a computer so that you can teach better. These days even a farmer needs skills to operate complex machines and computer and use internet, and find about the new innovation in the agriculture sector. The modern education system needs to teach kids managerial skills (because every job require some sort of management), computers and machines (because these days almost all jobs are done using a computer and machine), and become broad minded (because you have to work in a stressful environment).

One of the greatest things to happen to the human beings in the last century is the revolution in the communication technology, or the internet to be precise. The internet technology has leveraged the human beings in a way that they no longer have to leave the comfort of home to study, work, meet people, or make purchases. Modern education system has to make the use of internet to teach students, the modern teachers have to teach students how they can use computers, handheld devices, software, apps for learning. The teachers should also teach the kids how to use the internet safely. Education should stop promoting traditional teacher-student relations where the students are required to highly regard the teachers. Today, teachers are required to treat students more like friends. The education system has to bridge the gap so that is promotes a friendly environment where teacher and student discuss the issues and problems together.

 The Virtual Learning Environment

These days our kids are learning so many things from social sites, video sites, or even learning sites and apps, which seem to be absent in the traditional classroom learning. For example, instruction on game coding may be absent in the school curriculum, however, an eighth grader can learn game coding through YouTube or Udemy (online learning site/app). Therefore, we need to change our methods of teaching because the world is getting globalized and the world is turning virtual for everything from study, work, paying bills, shopping, etc. The kids are already learning more than what their teachers are teaching at school in traditional classroom. The education system needs to accommodate these things so that in absence of proper guidance learning does not go horribly wrong, and instead of good things, kids start to learn bad things.

Therefore, education system needs to be thoroughly modified so that the kids learn in friendly and healthy environment. Curriculum and teaching methods also need through modifications so that there is one-on-one education based on the individual interest and capacity. Of course there is also a question of not being also to accommodate the entire students in this new education system because they come from diverse geography and income source. For example, a student from Jumla may not have all resources that a student in Kathmandu has. However, even in that case, we still need to modify our education so that the student in Jumla is equipped with the same resources as his Kathmandu based counterpart.